CHP (Combined Heat and Power) is the joint and simultaneous production of electricity (or mechanical) and useful heat from a single energy source, implemented in a single integrated system.
Cogeneration, using the same fuel for two different uses, aims at a more efficient use of primary energy, with associated cost savings, especially in production processes where there are a proportionality and simultaneity between electric withdrawals and thermal extraction (or refrigerators).
ICMEA, thanks to the experience gained in recent years, is the right partner to study the specific needs and characteristics of any production cycle in order to make it more efficient.
The Organic Rankine Cycle is a solution for power production from low to medium temperature. The ORC technology is based on a conventional closed steam ciruit. It’s working principle is similar to most widely used process for power generation, the Clausius Rankine Cycle. The difference is the use of organic substances instead of water or steam as working fluid. The organic working fluid has a lower boilling point and a higher vapour pressure than water and is thus able to use low temperature heat sources to produce electricity. The implementation of an ORC-unit for the production of electric energy based on waste heat of a biomass gasification plant is an innovative possibility to increase the electric efficiency of gasification plants.
Gasification is a process of conversion of liquid or solid fuels into gaseous products performed by reaction with air, oxygen, steam or mixtures thereof.
The product gas (SYNGAS) is essentially a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4)
This technology therefore allows to transform the biomass into gaseous fuel used to power generators dragged by alternative internal combustion engines.
The gasifier allows, to companies with certain characteristics, to achieve a substantial percentage of energy self-sufficiency.
Companies that work the wood (and also many polymers) have the option of using their own waste production to produce electrical energy and heat (water and hot / cold water and air) necessary for their production cycle.
Gasified biomass replaces fossil fuels for generating electricity or heating. This makes use of locally available resources and provides local jobs, while also cutting greenhouse gas emissions.
Direct combustion is the best established and most commonly used technology for converting biomass to heat. During combustion, biomass fuel is burnt in excess air to produce heat. The first stage of combustion involves the evolution of combustible vapours from the biomass, which burn as flames. The residual material, in the form of charcoal, is burnt in a forced air supply to give more heat. The hot combustion gases are sometimes used directly for product drying, but more usually they are passed through a heat exchanger to produce hot air, hot water or steam.
Biomass combustion systems, based on a range of furnace designs, can be very efficient at producing hot gases, hot air, hot water or steam, typically recovering 65-90% of the energy contained in the fuel. Lower efficiencies are generally associated with wetter fuels. To cope with a diversity of fuel characteristics and combustion requirements, a number of designs of combustion furnaces or combustors are routinely utilized around the world.